Thoracic and Thoracoabdominal Aneurysms

Etiology, Epidemiology, and Natural History
Published:October 07, 2022DOI:


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.

      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.


      Subscribe to Anesthesiology Clinics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
        20 Leading Causes of Death, United States, 1999 - 2019, All Races, Both Sexes.
        (Available at:) (Accessed April 6, 2022)
        • Bäck M.
        • Gasser T.C.
        • Michel J.-B.
        • et al.
        Biomechanical factors in the biology of aortic wall and aortic valve diseases.
        Cardiovasc Res. 2013; 99: 232-241
        • Singh M.
        • Ziganshin B.A.
        • Elefteriades J.A.
        Aortic Aneurysm.
        in: Vasan R.S. Sawyer D.B. Encyclopedia of cardiovascular research and medicine. Elsevier, Oxford2018: 123-142
        • Hiratzka L.F.
        • Bakris G.L.
        • Beckman J.A.
        • et al.
        2010 ACCF/AHA/AATS/ACR/ASA/SCA/SCAI/SIR/STS/SVM guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with Thoracic Aortic Disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American College of Radiology, American Stroke Association, Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Interventional Radiology, Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and Society for Vascular Medicine.
        Circulation. 2010; 121: e266-e369
        • Senser E.M.
        • Misra S.
        • Henkin S.
        Thoracic aortic aneurysm: a clinical review.
        Cardiol Clin. 2021; 39: 505-515
        • Agarwal P.P.
        • Chughtai A.
        • Matzinger F.R.
        • et al.
        Multidetector CT of thoracic aortic aneurysms.
        Radiographics. 2009; 29: 537-552
        • Rylski B.
        • Desjardins B.
        • Moser W.
        • et al.
        Gender-related changes in aortic geometry throughout life.
        Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2014; 45: 805-811
        • Johnston K.W.
        • Rutherford R.B.
        • Tilson M.D.
        • et al.
        Suggested standards for reporting on arterial aneurysms. Subcommittee on Reporting Standards for Arterial Aneurysms, Ad Hoc Committee on Reporting Standards, Society for Vascular Surgery and North American Chapter, International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery.
        J Vasc Surg. 1991; 13: 452-458
        • Isselbacher E.M.
        Thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms.
        Circulation. 2005; 111: 816-828
        • Nathan D.P.
        • Xu C.
        • Pouch A.M.
        • et al.
        Increased wall stress of saccular versus fusiform aneurysms of the descending thoracic aorta.
        Ann Vasc Surg. 2011; 25: 1129-1137
        • Crawford E.S.
        • Coselli J.S.
        Thoracoabdominal aneurysm surgery.
        Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1991; 3: 300-322
        • Reed D.
        • Reed C.
        • Stemmermann G.
        • et al.
        Are aortic aneurysms caused by atherosclerosis?.
        Circulation. 1992; 85: 205-211
        • Bhandari R.
        • Kanthi Y.
        The genetics of aortic aneurysms.
        Am Coll Cardiol. 2018;
        • Bhandari R.
        • Aatre R.D.
        • Kanthi Y.
        Diagnostic approach and management of genetic aortopathies.
        Vasc Med. 2020; 25: 63-77
        • Tinkle B.T.
        • Saal H.M.
        Health supervision for children with Marfan syndrome.
        Pediatrics. 2013; 132: e1059-e1072
        • Williams J.A.
        • Loeys B.L.
        • Nwakanma L.U.
        • et al.
        Early surgical experience with Loeys-Dietz: a new syndrome of aggressive thoracic aortic aneurysm disease.
        Ann Thorac Surg. 2007; 83 ([discussion: S785-790]): S757-S763
        • Byers P.H.
        Vascular ehlers-danlos syndrome.
        in: Adam M.P. Ardinger H.H. Pagon R.A. GeneReviews(®). University of Washington, Seattle Copyright © 1993-2022, University of Washington, Seattle. GeneReviews is a registered trademark of the University of Washington, Seattle. All rights reserved., Seattle (WA)1993: 1-16
        • Pepin M.
        • Schwarze U.
        • Superti-Furga A.
        • et al.
        Clinical and genetic features of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, the vascular type.
        N Engl J Med. 2000; 342: 673-680
        • Siu S.C.
        • Silversides C.K.
        Bicuspid aortic valve disease.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010; 55: 2789-2800
        • Verma S.
        • Siu S.C.
        Aortic dilatation in patients with bicuspid aortic valve.
        N Engl J Med. 2014; 370: 1920-1929
        • Blais S.
        • Meloche-Dumas L.
        • Fournier A.
        • et al.
        Long-term risk factors for dilatation of the proximal aorta in a large cohort of children with bicuspid aortic valve.
        Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2020; 13: e009675
        • Grattan M.
        • Prince A.
        • Rumman R.K.
        • et al.
        Predictors of bicuspid aortic valve-associated aortopathy in childhood: a report from the MIBAVA consortium.
        Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2020; 13: e009717
        • Cury M.
        • Zeidan F.
        • Lobato A.C.
        Aortic disease in the young: genetic aneurysm syndromes, connective tissue disorders, and familial aortic aneurysms and dissections.
        Int J Vasc Med. 2013; 2013: 267215
        • Lopes R.J.
        • Almeida J.
        • Dias P.J.
        • et al.
        Infectious thoracic aortitis: a literature review.
        Clin Cardiol. 2009; 32: 488-490
        • Lee W.K.
        • Mossop P.J.
        • Little A.F.
        • et al.
        Infected (mycotic) aneurysms: spectrum of imaging appearances and management.
        Radiographics. 2008; 28: 1853-1868
        • Hsu R.B.
        • Lin F.Y.
        Infected aneurysm of the thoracic aorta.
        J Vasc Surg. 2008; 47: 270-276
        • Peterss S.
        • Mansour A.M.
        • Ross J.A.
        • et al.
        Changing pathology of the thoracic aorta from acute to chronic dissection: literature review and insights.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016; 68: 1054-1065
        • Gouveia E.M.R.
        • Silva Duarte G.
        • Lopes A.
        • et al.
        Incidence and prevalence of thoracic aortic aneurysms: a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based studies.
        Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2021;
        • Bickerstaff L.K.
        • Pairolero P.C.
        • Hollier L.H.
        • et al.
        Thoracic aortic aneurysms: a population-based study.
        Surgery. 1982; 92: 1103-1108
        • Svensjö S.
        • Bengtsson H.
        • Bergqvist D.
        Thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm and dissection: an investigation based on autopsy.
        Br J Surg. 1996; 83: 68-71
        • Elefteriades J.A.
        Natural history of thoracic aortic aneurysms: indications for surgery, and surgical versus nonsurgical risks.
        Ann Thorac Surg. 2002; 74 ([discussion: S1892-1878]): S1877-S1880
        • Zafar M.A.
        • Chen J.F.
        • Wu J.
        • et al.
        Natural history of descending thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms.
        J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2021; 161: 498-511.e491
        • Coady M.A.
        • Rizzo J.A.
        • Hammond G.L.
        • et al.
        What is the appropriate size criterion for resection of thoracic aortic aneurysms?.
        J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1997; 113 ([discussion: 489-491]): 476-491
        • Oladokun D.
        • Patterson B.O.
        • Sobocinski J.
        • et al.
        Systematic review of the growth rates and influencing factors in thoracic aortic aneurysms.
        Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2016; 51: 674-681
        • Tsai T.T.
        • Nienaber C.A.
        • Eagle K.A.
        Acute aortic syndromes.
        Circulation. 2005; 112: 3802-3813
        • Lombardi J.V.
        • Hughes G.C.
        • Appoo J.J.
        • et al.
        Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) and Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) reporting standards for type B aortic dissections.
        J Vasc Surg. 2020; 71: 723-747
        • Hagan P.G.
        • Nienaber C.A.
        • Isselbacher E.M.
        • et al.
        The international registry of acute aortic dissection (IRAD): new insights into an old disease.
        JAMA. 2000; 283: 897-903
        • Kuzmik G.A.
        • Sang A.X.
        • Elefteriades J.A.
        Natural history of thoracic aortic aneurysms.
        J Vasc Surg. 2012; 56: 565-571